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Lead Extrusion/Powder Metals
 
Lead Extrusion/Powder Metals Quantity in Basket: None
Catalog No.: DC-LEAD
Price: $10.00
Shipping Weight: 0.10 pounds
 
Select CD-ROM or USB thumb drive:
Ship on a CD-ROM
Ship on a USB drive (thumb drive)
 
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The DC-LEAD instant calculator program can be installed on your hard disk under the DC-LEAD folder, or it can be run from the CD-ROM directly.

The CD-ROM also contains a printable chart of lead wire lengths for given weights, in all standard diameters. This helps you quickly cut the proper length of wire to make a certain weight of core for any caliber.

The purpose of the program is to calculate the length, weight and volume of lead wire that can be extruded, in your choice of diameters, from a given diameter of lead billet, of a given hardness. It also estimates the required drive pressure, given a certain diameter of hydraulic drive cylinder to power the extruder.

A second window, accessed by clicking "Cores", calculates the length of a given diameter lead core to achieve a given weight using a selected material density. It also calculates the compressed length and effective density of powdered metal cores of a given weight and diameter, and calculates effective density of a mixture of given volumes of different core materials, up to three materials.

The program provides feedback if impractical values are entered, and self-corrects back to a reasonable number. The screens can be printed on any Windows-compatible printer. Density is given in pounds per cubic inch, and displayed in grams per cubic centimeter as well.

The extruder functions are based on certain assumptions about the amount of friction and resistance caused by moving the lead through a certain diameter extrusion die. In a practical system, there are variations in resistance due to die design, smoothness, lubrication, and temperature. Therefore, the program provides an adjusment factor called "lubricant efficiency" which adjusts the amount of resistance assumed, and changes the pressure for a given hardness and diameter of wire extruded with a given size of cylinder from a certain length and diameter of billet.

The normal setting for lube efficiency is "10", but it can be set from 1 to 100 to bring the results in line with experience from a given machine. To predict extruder size and pressure with reasonable margin of safety, always use the lower efficiency settings until you know for certain that your extruder does, in fact, allow lower pressures.

Powdered metals are usually poured into a core swage die or jacketed bullet "cup" (the jacket itself) and then compressed. The volume and effective density of the core will change with compression. The basic metal density itself will always be higher than the effective density, since small amounts of space exist between particles of the powder which are not present in the solid form of the metal (or other powder).

The program asks for the basic material density of the solid, and then asks for the diameter of the core and the amount of compression as a percentage of original "as poured" volume. When you pour a powder into a die or jacket, it "stacks up" in a long column. Then, a punch is used to compress this column into the jacket or die, shortening the column. The ratio of the original column to the compressed core length is this percentage. A core cannot be compressed 100% because that would mean it went from some measurable length to zero (a black hole?) and the means to do that are beyond the normal realm of bullet manufacturing.

A typical compression might be between 20 and 50 percent. The core weight remains the same as the original volume of powder, but the density is increased as the length is decreased. The program gives you these figures.

The combination of materials, whether they be powders or solids melted together, or simply put one after another into a die or jacket as solid bits, results in a net effective density which would be the same as a single material of some type. The program lets you calculate two or three different materials in various ratios from 0 to 100 percent each, of different densities, in order to show this effective density. Zero percent means that there is none of that material, so it is taken out of the equation completely. One hundred percent means no other materials are present. Anything between these two numbers gives a valid calculation of effective density for two or three materials in one core.



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